Preterm babies are described as the ones born before the expiration of 37 weeks after the last menstrual cycle of the mother. According to a recent estimate, every 1 in 10 babies is a preterm baby and close to 15 million babies are preterm every year. These babies may face a host of health issues right after their birth and need especial care to ensure their survival and proper development. Preterm birth complications account for nearly 1 million deaths every year and remains as the leading cause of mortality in children under 5.
Experts from the United States have been successful in testing a support mechanism on lambs that facilitated growth and survival in them. Scientists first developed a womb-like bag known as extra-uterine support device and tested its efficacy on preterm lamb. These lamb were physiologically similar a human baby born under the gestation period of 23-24 weeks. It was found that the lambs were able to survive and develop in this sterile, temperature controlled environment. This prompted the team to create a prototype that could fit human preterm babies.
The scientists made amniotic fluid in their lab and set up the system so that this flowed into and out of the bag. In pre-clinical studies with lambs, the researchers were able to mimic the womb environment and the functions of the placenta, giving premature offspring a crucial opportunity to develop their lungs and other organs.Around 30,000 babies in the United States alone are born critically early – at between 23 and 26 weeks of gestation, the researchers told reporters in a telephone briefing.
At that age, a human baby weighs little more than 500 grams, its lungs are not able to cope with air and its chances of survival are low. Death rates are up to 70 percent and those who do survive face life-long disability.”These infants have an urgent need for a bridge between the mother’s womb and the outside world,” said Alan Flake, a specialist surgeon at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia who led the development of the new device.
His team’s aim, he said, was to develop an extra-uterine system where extremely premature babies can be suspended in fluid-filled chambers for a vital few weeks to bring them over the 28-week threshold, when their life chances are dramatically improved.It could take up to another 10 years, but by then he hopes to have a licensed device in which babies born very prematurely are given the chance to develop in fluid-filled chambers, rather than lying in incubators being artificially ventilated.
“This system is potentially far superior to what hospitals can currently do for a 23-week-old baby born at the cusp of viability,” Flake said. “This could establish a new standard of care for this subset of extremely premature infants.”The team spent three years evolving their system through a series of four prototypes – beginning with a glass incubator tank and progressing to the current fluid-filled bag.
Lung development in fetal lambs is very similar in humans, said fetal physiologist Marcus Davey, who worked on team.